The CDGSH iron-sulfur domain (CISD) containing NEET proteins, mitoNEET and NAF-1, have been implicated as potential targets for drug development to treat a variety of disorders including type-2 diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson’s Disease. However, an unclear assignment of specific cellular function(s) for this protein family presents a significant roadblock in rational drug development. We are studying how this intriguing class of proteins integrates into mitochondrial and cellular bioenergetics.